We visited Peru in June 2013 on an International Expedition tour, I usually do not endorse or even mention tour operators, but this was one of the best tours we have been on, and I do highly recommend checking them out.
Peru is 60% rainforest, 30% Andes, 10% coast. Loreto is the largest province being 30% of the country and contains the Peruvian Amazon Basin. About 95% of the water (rainfall, springs, etc) goes to the Amazon basin, the remaining 5% goes to the Pacific Ocean. In the 1970’s after years of disagreement between Peru and Ecuador about the source of the Amazon it was determined, by the volume & depth, to be the Ucayali river in Aerequipa at 1700 ft above sea level.
There have been two major pandemics in Peru/South America, the first was Small Pox brought by Cortez, the second was the Spanish Influenza during the rubber boom of the late 1800's and early 1900's.
Cuy or better know as Guinea Pig is a traditional food of Peru. It is generally served by Peruvians for special occasions, such as birthdays, wedding, festival days, etc. and was very good and tasting like a cross between pork and beef.
In 1870’s the "Pacific War" was fought between Chile, Bolivia, and Peru. Chili won and took away the land bridge Bolivia had to the pacific, making it essentially land locked and also took a chunk of Peru who was supporting Bolivia a the time.